Cultural Engineering Group

Services & Ressources en ingénierie culturelle

Un nouveau cycle prometteur à Stereolux

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Stereolux est un lieu fantastique et épatant, beaucoup d’entre vous le savent et on ne le dira jamais assez. C’est un lieu aux multiples facettes installé au cœur de l’île de Nantes, au sein de La Fabrique. C’est un projet culturel et artistique porté par l’association Songo, orienté autour des musiques actuelles et des pratiques numériques. Situé sous les Nefs, à deux pas du centre ville, Stereolux s’anime aux côtés d’acteurs culturels, des établissements d’enseignement supérieur et des entreprises créatives et innovantes.

C’est un laboratoire « Arts & Techs » qui travaille l’innovation par la création numérique comme on en voit peu en France et qui inaugure en octobre un nouveau cycle très prometteurs sur le thème de les lumières de la ville. A ne pas manquer donc !

Ville, scénographie et usages sont les trois mots qui vont animer le dernier trimestre 2015 à Stereolux. D’un côté, lumière et ville, avec un hackathonune conférence et des démonstrations qui vont s’intéresser entre autres aux dispositifs urbains lumineux et leur rôle dans la thématique des « Smart Cities ». De l’autre, lumière, scénographie et interaction, avec un workshop s’intéressant au créative coding dans le spectacle vivant et une conférence.Pour vous mettre dans l e bain, Gwendal Le Ménahèze introduit la thématique dans cet article.

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Investir en urgence dans des modèles économiques de la création artistique plus coopératifs et solidaires

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Les séminaires de l’Institut de Coopération pour la Culture sont l’occasion d’explorer, de décrypter et d’analyser des projets. Avec les études de cas, nous pouvons nous appuyer sur des expériences concrètes pour alimenter nos réflexions sur une question centrale : quelle action publique en faveur d’une culture humaniste ? Nous explorons un projet offrant la possibilité d’aborder un ensemble de facettes : artistique, culturelle, territoriale (y compris européenne), sociale, éducative, économique… Les thèmes centraux de l’Institut de Coopération pour la Culture s’articulent en 2014 et 2015 autour de la diversité culturelle, des singularités et du bien commun, des nouvelles modalités d’organisation et de gouvernance.

Deux séminaires auront été consacrés au thème de l’économie, ou plutôt des économies des biens symboliques. Nous sommes cependant loin du compte ! Ce thème demande une maîtrise de nombreux concepts et oblige d’aller au-delà d’une vision simpliste (scolaire) de la « science économique ». Cette exploration de la socioéconomie des biens symboliques nous aura permis une première appropriation de ces problématiques trop souvent réservées à des experts1.

Par ce travail, nous aurons au moins compris l’importance de reconnecter le sens, les valeurs et l’économie en considérant que les problèmes financiers que connaît aujourd’hui le secteur culturel ne sont pas seulement liés à une restriction budgétaire. Prendre le temps d’explorer le thème des économies encastrées conduit à intégrer la notion de chaine globale de valeur qui ne peut en aucun cas se résumer à la seule gestion financière et comptable.

Pour lire l’intégralité de la septième contribution de l’Institut, cliquez ici.

Filed under: Analyses, Expériences, Gouvernances, Ingénieries, Outils, Politiques culturelles, Ressources, , , , ,

2015 Annual Conference on Cultural Diplomacy

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The Annual Conference on Cultural Diplomacy is the world’s leading event in the field of cultural diplomacy, hosted and organized by the Institute for Cultural Diplomacy (ICD) in partnership with other leading institutions at the end of each year. The 2015 Annual Conference on Cultural Diplomacy: Building Bridges of Peace and Reconciliation in Times of Greater Global Insecurity, to be held in Berlin, Germany, on 10-13 December 2015, aims to present all practices that the field of cultural diplomacy has to offer to the international community for their application to try to remedy and solve the growing global challenges. The conference will bring together leading politicians, religious leaders, senior academics and celebrated artists together with representatives from areas of conflict in order to establish new institutions and initiatives that will help with these challenges using the practice of cultural diplomacy together with other practices and means.

Participation in the conference is open to governmental and diplomatic officials, academics, artists, journalists, civil society practitioners, private sector representatives, young professionals and students as well as other interested individuals from across the world. The Conference Committee encourages academic research and analysis of issues related to the goals of the Conference. The Conference Committee would therefore like to welcome the participants of the conference to submit a paper they would like to be considered for presentation at the conference as well as being included in the proposal document that will be issued following the conference and will be sent to all governments and leaders of the international community worldwide.

Contact: Institute for Cultural Diplomacy, Genthiner Str. 20, 10785 Berlin, Germany; e-mail: info@culturaldiplomacy.org.

For more information please visit www.culturaldiplomacy.org

Source : Culturelink

Filed under: Evénements, Expériences, Gouvernances, Politiques culturelles, Ressources, , ,

Arts, culture et médias : comment évaluer les politiques publiques ?

DEPS_JECC7_frontA4Le Département des études, de la prospective et des statistiques (DEPS) du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, le cluster de recherche « Industries créatives, culture, sport » de KEDGE Business School et le Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d’évaluation des politiques publiques (LIEPP) de Sciences Po organisaient les Septièmes journées d’économie de la culture et de la communication, à la Bibliothèque nationale de France, site François-Mitterrand, les jeudi 24 et vendredi 25 septembre derniers.

Cette septième édition des Journées d’économie de la culture et de la communication était consacrée à l’évaluation des politiques publiques du domaine des arts, de la culture et des médias. Elle a notamment été l’occasion pour des chercheurs de présenter et de discuter de nouveaux résultats d’évaluation sur l’impact de la tenue de festivals subventionnés, de la loi Hadopi, de politiques éducatives, des aides à la presse ou du droit d’auteur. Les échanges ont également porté sur le bilan des méthodes d’évaluation utilisées aujourd’hui. Un regard rétrospectif sur l’évaluation des politiques publiques et un examen d’expériences locales ont enfin été proposés. Une synthèse de l’édition sera prochainement proposée mais en attendant, vous pouvez revoir les diaporamas présentés lors de ces deux journées ici.

Filed under: Evénements, Expériences, Gouvernances, Ingénieries, Politiques culturelles, Ressources, , , , ,

The new manager – possible approaches from the arts

FullSizeRender_RWhat is the importance of the manager in companies right now? Is the role of the manager the same as in the middle of 20Th century? So why is the prototype of the manager the same? Departing from “The Five Minds of a Manager” (2003) of Gosling and Mintzberg (the reflective mind-set; the analytical mind-set; the worldly mind-set; the collaborative mind-set and the action mind-set) we intend to construct an approach of where art dynamics can help shaping the new mind frame that managers need to act in the 21st century business context. Applying a workart (Barry and Meisiek: 2010) program can help enterprises, and the managing board, to shift from an Weberian (DiMaggio 2001) paradigm to the new economic model, focusing on the experience and promoting the creativity and innovation along the organization.

What does a workart program mean? It means a program that is a social, individual or community process that emerges from the friction between a set of previous knowledge and the acquisition of new knowledge through an art process, which, for its uniqueness and strangeness, has the ability to provoke conceptual breakthroughs, to form an art mind cognition, where managers can be as agile and creative as artists and as focused and practical as engineers.

How this can help managers to be more prepared to rule the 21st century company? After the mass production, the dot.coms and the web 3.0, we are in a world where selling products is not enough, it is needed to sell experiences, dreams and participation, the consumer has to feel the buying experience as a process where he is the centre and an active actor. This is what art has been doing since ever, bringing the experience close to the public and asking them to take part of the process, to let the passive attitude at the door.

Why are the five mind-sets important? Alongside the changes in the market, we had dramatic changes in the companies. The language of the arts has been taking over the business world, we never talked so much about labour agility, creativity, innovation, flexibility, symbolic capital and aesthetics design. These terms are spread in the organizations and impact every single person that interacts with the enterprises. The five mind-sets allow managers to take these changes into account, the complexity of the organization model, the consumer demands and the different markets specifications, and to act in a more proactive and informed way amplifying the success of the company to every stakeholder and allowing it to change and evolve.

A possible path is traced, not an easy or cloudless one, but an exciting and new one. At the same time, the developing of these intersections could have an impact in the ways business looks at arts and at the growth of the creative industries, with more resources being allocated to it while the benefits are more clear and spread around the other activities and, therefore, appropriated. More experiences are needed to see through the clouds and measure the real potential of this approach, since we are facing complex contexts and making bridges between fields that only recently have shown proximity and are willing to work together, but for uncertain times probably the best source of solution does not lie in typical management methods prescribed by consultants and applied by MBA graduates, but in the fields that enterprises emulate to conduct their organizations into a more dynamic and aesthetic way to operate.

Ricardo Moreira*.

*Ricardo Moreira is an economist, with an innovation masters (Porto University) and doing a business PhD (Barcelona University), specialization in organizations theory and human resources management, crossing arts and business that, for the last 10 years, have done management and consultant work for small to big cultural entities, private and public, and have designed and implemented a wide range of events and business creative programs. In the last 3 years he has co-ordinated 3 national studies for the Portuguese Government (Independent Arts and Cultural Heritage) and for the Portuguese contemporary dance network. Since 2007 he has been invited by the main Portuguese Universities to teach master classes on the subjects of arts management, cultural markets, intersections between arts and business, and creativity in the business context.

The entire article is in the process of journal publishing.

To know more about Ricardo Moreira, please click here. You can also contact him here.

Filed under: Analyses, Expériences, Gouvernances, Ingénieries, Ressources, , , , , ,

Prendre enfin en compte l’hétérogénéité culturelle et l’historicité des territoires dans la définition des politiques publiques

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Les séminaires de l’Institut de Coopération pour la Culture sont l’occasion d’explorer, de décrypter et d’analyser des projets. Avec les études de cas, nous pouvons nous appuyer sur des expériences concrètes pour alimenter nos réflexions sur une question centrale : quelle action publique en faveur d’une culture humaniste ? Nous explorons un projet offrant la possibilité d’aborder un ensemble de facettes : artistique, culturelle, territoriale (y compris européenne), sociale, éducative, économique… Les thèmes centraux de l’Institut de Coopération pour la Culture s’articulent en 2014 et 2015 autour de la diversité culturelle, des singularités et du bien commun, des nouvelles modalités d’organisation et de gouvernance.

En introduction, une présentation synthétique de l’expérience du Carreau, Scène nationale de Forbach et de l’Est mosellan, apporte les principaux points de repère à partir desquels nous avons construit ce temps d’exploration.

Par la suite, Christophe BLANDIN-ESTOURNET, Thierry BLOUET, Philippe HENRY, Jean Claude POMPOUGNAC, Pascale de ROZARIO et Didier SALZGEBER nous livrent sur des registres différents leurs analyses. La richesse de ces contributions démontre qu’il est possible, malgré les contraintes d’agenda, de créer un espace collectif de réflexion et de mise en sens des expériences.

Enfin, le texte des membres de l’Institut mentionné en fin de document, ouvre sur une problématisation et sur les propositions utiles plus globalement à la gouvernance des équipements culturels et artistiques.

Parce qu’elle interroge une même expérience – ici, celle du Carreau – cette publication #6 engendre, à partir de sept contributions, de nouveaux éléments de la réalité de la Scène nationale et pourrait devenir un nouvel objet à étudier.

Pour lire l’intégralité de la sixième contribution de l’Institut, cliquez ici.

 

Filed under: Analyses, Expériences, Gouvernances, Ingénieries, Outils, Politiques culturelles, Ressources, , , , ,

Faire de l’action publique en faveur de la culture un levier de l’innovation sociale et politique

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Passer du processus de mobilisation des usagers à une participation stratégique des citoyens.

Avec ce 8ème séminaire, l’Institut de Coopération pour la Culture poursuit l’exploration des problématiques autour des bibliothèques et médiathèques, en les considérant comme des équipements emblématiques des politiques culturelles publiques depuis plusieurs décennies. Ces lieux se sont résolument engagés dans un réexamen de leur place et de leur rôle dans l’espace public. Le numérique, dans toutes ses dimensions, a créé une situation relativement inédite obligeant les acteurs professionnels et politiques à réinterroger leurs pratiques.

Comme l’illustre le projet de la médiathèque de la Communauté de Communes entre Dore et Allier (Puy-de-Dôme), à Lezoux, la mise en place d’un processus collectif avec les futurs usagers de l’établissement ouvre de nouvelles perspectives dans la manière de penser la médiathèque de demain. La méthodologie utilisée et initiée par la 27e Région se situe en amont de la création effective de la médiathèque, et se propose d’apporter une vision générale de la médiathèque à partir des usages.

Le principe d’une résidence constitue au plan méthodologique l’élément central de cette démarche animée par une équipe pluridisciplinaire. L’analyse de cette expérience nous a conduit à poser un certain nombre de questions. Sur le processus proprement dit : en quoi l’exploration de ce projet est-elle différente des méthodes habituelles ? Le temps de résidence permet-il d’observer un déplacement du système d’acteurs ? Ce processus débouche-t-il sur de nouvelles modalités de décision politique et opérationnelle ? Cet investissement public très en amont de la construction effective de la médiathèque ouvre-t-il des perspectives nouvelles en termes d’ingénierie de coopération politique ? Sur la méthode : en quoi permet-elle effectivement d’envisager cet espace public d’une autre manière ? Quels enseignements pouvons-nous tirer de cette expérience qui puissent être utiles à d’autres territoires et d’autres secteurs culturels ? C’est toute la question du transfert d’expérience et des conditions à réunir pour une généralisation de la méthode.

Pour lire l’intégralité de la cinquième contribution de l’Institut, cliquez ici.

Filed under: Analyses, Expériences, Gouvernances, Ingénieries, Outils, Politiques culturelles, Ressources, , , , ,

Capital of Culture : What is the impact of arts and cultural clustering on local productivity ?

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This is the summary of a paper that was included in a National Endowment for the Arts/Brookings Institution volume published last year. We just uplodaded it to the Nesta working paper series – you can download the paper here.

In recent years, academics and consultants have argued that the arts and cultural sector can boost productivity in other sectors of the local economy, through two main mechanisms.

  • By creating urban environments that attract professionals with high levels of human capital and their innovative, high-growth employers.
  • By supplying other parts of the local economy – in particular, commercial creative firms – with new ideas and skills that enhance innovation.

Although these arguments have justified policies for creative place making, urban branding, and public investments in signature buildings and dedicated cultural districts, the evidence base underpinning them is still sparse, and mostly confined to the US. Additionally, little is known about the relative importance of different mechanisms and types of cultural clustering (occupational or industrial) in boosting local productivity.
 
In Capital of Culture, we seek to address these gaps in the literature by building an econometric model exploring the impact of cultural clusters on the productivity of English cities. In doing this, we draw on a well-established body of literature on urban wage premiums and human capital externalities.

Our model tests the impact of cultural agglomeration on worker wages (which act as a proxy for productivity) at the city level. We use three measures of cultural clustering (cultural sector employment, cultural occupations and cultural institutions), constructed from official labour force and business registry survey data, and a unique dataset of almost 5,000 UK cultural institutions from Culture 24. We control for important individual and city level characteristics.

What are our findings?

There is evidence that skilled workers sacrifice higher wages to locate in areas with strong cultural clustering

Our findings confirm that there is a positive relationship between cultural clustering and average wages in English cities: English cities in the 90th percentile of cultural employment clustering have average hourly wages of £12.48, £1.11 higher than the average wage for cities in the 10th percentile. However, once we control for individual characteristics (particularly skills as proxied by an individual’s qualifications), the coefficients for two out of our three measures of cultural clustering in our wage equations (cultural employment and institutions) become significantly negative, while the cultural occupations coefficient becomes insignificant.

This ‘negative cultural urban wage premium’ is consistent with there being a compensating differential. In other words, workers may, other things equal, be willing to take a wage cut to reside in cities with relatively more cultural amenities, as these contribute to its quality of life – its ‘livability’, and ‘lovability’.

Creative cities seem to be more productive

We also use our econometric model to examine the relationship between worker wages and measures of creative clustering (focusing on employment and occupations in commercial creative industries as compared to the arts and culture). In this case, we find evidence of a positive wage premium in ‘creative cities’ even after controlling for individual skills – this is particularly the case for cities with strong creative occupational clustering. Although caution is advised in the interpretation of this finding given the obvious potential for reverse causality (affluent cities attract creative industries), it lends support to those who advocate targeting occupations instead of industies to support urban development.

The is evidence of innovation spillovers from cultural clusters into the commercial creative economy

Finally, we test the impact of cultural clustering on the wages of workers in the local ‘commercial’ creative industries, bearing in mind the literature’s emphasis on knowledge spillovers across related – rather than distant – industrial domains. Here, we find some evidence that creative workers in cities with high levels of cultural clustering enjoy a wage premium, which suggests that not-for-profit arts and cultural sectors may generate knowledge spillovers for the commercial creative economy. Once again, these results should be seen as indicative at best, as the causality could work in the opposite direction (a vibrant arts and cultural scene may emerge in places with more productive creative clusters).

Our conclusions 

The preliminary conclusion from our analysis is that, although English data support the view that there is a relationship between cultural clustering and urban development, that relationship appears to be subtler than is generally acknowledged. In particular, the economic impact of public investments in urban arts and cultural infrastructure may be manifest in improvements in the productivity (and wages) of creative professionals, and may not be associated with higher wages in the wider economy if cultural activities serve as a compensating differential.

Image credit: Handover of the European Capital of Culture from Liverpool to Vilnius and Linz via Eric The Fish at Flickr.

Filed under: Analyses, Evénements, Expériences, Gouvernances, Politiques culturelles, Ressources, , , , ,

Appel à propositions Coopération européenne

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L’Agence exécutive Education,Audiovisuel et Culture de la Commission européenne vient de publier un nouvel appel à propositions Europe créative pour des projets de Coopération. L’e-form n’est, à ce jour, pas encore publié.

Attention: la date de dépôt limite est maintenue au 1er octobre à midi. 

Vous trouverez l’appel, les lignes directrices et le guide des participants grâce aux liens suivants (en français):

L’appel à proposition pour les projets de Traduction Littéraire a été reporté et devrait être publié dans le courant du mois d’août.

Pour plus d’informations, suivez ce lien vers le site de l’agence:

http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/creative-europe/actions/culture_en

Filed under: Expériences, Ingénieries, Outils, Politiques culturelles, , , ,

Le Museumsquartier de Vienne a enfin son emblème

UnknownLe Museumsquartier (MQ) de Vienne a décidé de doter le Musée Leopold d’une verrière d’un montant de 600 millions d’euros et qui sera située sur le toit de l’édifice. Cette salle d’évènements, baptisée « MQ Libelle », donnera enfin à ce complexe culturel l’emblème qu’il mérite, se réjouit le quotidien libéral-conservateur Die Presse : « Le MQ, inauguré en 2001 après deux décennies de dispute, est devenu ce que ses fans espéraient dans leurs rêves les plus fous : une zone urbaine pour tous – jeunes, férus de culture, touristes – un endroit encore plus agréable que le Centre Pompidou à Paris, auquel le MQ est souvent comparé. Viennois et touristes affluent aux portes du MQ, lequel enregistre près de quatre millions de visiteurs chaque année. L’aménagement du MQ dans l’enceinte des anciennes écuries royales, aujourd’hui classées monument historique, avait suscité de vives controverses à l’époque. Mais cela s’est avéré judicieux, car les visiteurs se trouvent à la fois protégés et en plein centre-ville, au cœur des évènements. … Avec ce nouveau projet architectural, le MQ pourra enfin être visible depuis l’extérieur de la ville. »

Source : BpB.

Filed under: Expériences, Gouvernances, ,

Creative Transition towards Sustainability

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3-day Interdisciplinary PhD Workshop from 3rd – 5th of November 2014 Design – Architecture – Engineering – Natural, Social and Cultural Sciences.

Sustainability is the main challenge of this century. How to deal with global crises like climate change, energy- and resource scarcity or related social conflicts? How is a good life possible for all people on a finite planet? Technological/industrial innovations or economic growth are not by themselves sufficient answers to such questions. What we need is a holistic and systemic approach in combination with a fundamental change of our production/consumption structures and behavioural patterns.

In a three day workshop, experts and PhD students from different European countries and disciplines will come together for an intensive exchange about strategies and specific possibilities of societal transformation towards more sustainable lifestyles. Through a dialogue between observers and analysts of the transformation on the one hand, and designers of the transformation on the other hand, the workshop promotes an intensive relationship between theory and praxis. The PhD Workshop therefore addresses different disciplines e.g. social, economic and cultural scientists, architects, product-designers, engineers. Best practice projects (e.g. living labs in Barcelona) will be presented and examined from an interdisciplinary perspective.

As the behaviour of individuals is strongly influenced by the design of the world we live in, the transformation of lifestyles needs a corresponding transformation of design, architecture and engineering together with a comprehensive re-definition of the concepts of ‚service‘ and of the production and ‚consumption system‘. Modern design is often object-oriented and underestimates the ecological, social and cultural environment. In contrast, this workshop looks for the complex interconnections between designed objects, products and services and their contribution to a creative transformation towards sustainability.

Call for abstracts:

We invite PhD students (and possibly some advanced Master students) from all disciplines conducting research related to the workshop theme „Creative transition towards sustainability“ and with a strong interest in scientific work, to submit an abstract in order to be selected for participation in this transdisciplinary event.
As the goal is to hand in the final paper to a scientific peer-reviewed journal, the applicants are expected to have informed themselves about possibilities for publishing their paper drafts.

Venue

UPC- Barcelona Tech is the second biggest university in Spain. The ETSAV School of Architecture at Sant Cugat del Vallés (www.etsav.upc.edu) is a well recognized centre in the field of sustainable architecture and urbanism with a wide range of initiatives. This includes for example its Living Lab for Sustainable Architecture and Lifestyle (www.livinglab-low3.blogspot.com), which will also be the main venue of the workshop.

Applications:

Applicants should send an abstract (max. 500 characters) about their on-going research work together with a letter of application/motivation and a short CV. An expert committee will select the most suitable contributions according to their quality in relation to the workshop topic.
A general explanation of the abstract and paper are included as an annex.

Methodology:

The workshop will combine theoretical sessions (presentations of research work, experts input, round table sessions) with practical work (living lab exploration, co-creation activities, group work) in order to create a lively atmosphere for a productive interdisciplinary exchange.

Expected outcomes:

Experts will assess participants in their research work to enable discussing specific aspects in small groups. The publication of papers will be prepared.

Recognition:

The Summer School committee will issue a certificate of successful attendance.

Deadlines:

Submission of abstracts and application letter: 15th of September 2014 Notice of acceptance: 30th of September 2014.
Submission of full paper (draft) or presentation: 1st of October 2014

(see also template for paper and abstract).

Fee:

280€Euro (includes 3-day workshop, 3 coffee breaks, 3 lunches and 3 dinners). Not included are: Flight, accommodation, breakfast and further travel costs.

Accommodation:

Accommodation in Barcelona centre can be found individually e.g. through the following websites: http://www.booking.com, http://www.apartmentbarcelona.com, http://www.bcn-stay.com or similar.
Student apartments might be available on short notice at the campus for 35€/night in a double room. Please contact us for further information.

Contact:

For all applications and contacts please write to: sustainablesummerschoolbcn@gmail.com

Filed under: Evénements, Expériences, Gouvernances, Ingénieries, Politiques culturelles, , , , ,

Nantes digital week

Nantes digital week

Du 12 au 21 septembre 2014, Nantes Métropole lance sa première Digital Week.

Les rendez-vous aux typologies contrastées qu’elle propose (conférences, expo, festival, démos, workshop) et le public éclectique qu’elle va rassembler : chercheurs, amateurs d’arts numériques, start-upers, entrepreneurs, curieux, spécialistes…

La Nantes Digital Week, c’est l’expression du bouillonnement numérique nantais et de son goût pour l’hybridation, les croisements inattendus entre la recherche, l’art, les start-up et l’industrie.

Plus d’information ici.

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Robots explore Tate Britain’s artwork after dark

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Nocturnal robots are set to tour the halls of London’s Tate Britain Museum, as part of a unique project aimed at allowing art lovers to explore the building after hours.

On Wednesday when the gallery’s door close – four remote controlled bots will be set free to roam through 500 years of art.

Each machine will live-stream its footage to the Tate’s « After Dark » website, where viewers will be able to take turns to control the robots’ movements.

If they manage to manoeuvre to a work of art, a team of live art experts will be on hand to provide live commentary.

The project is the result of the £70,000 IK Prize; a competition to encourage innovative digital uses of the museum.

Other shortlisted ideas were to make virtual versions of works of art in block-building game Minecraft, and to broadcast the stories behind art works over social networks.

The developers claim the robots can broadcast what they see in near real time. But if you want to see the works of art in full definition, you’ll have to visit the old fashioned way.

Find out how the robots were made in this weekend’s Click. If you are in the UK you can watch the whole programme on BBC iPlayer.

Filed under: Expériences, Politiques culturelles

Património e Território, a study to comprise an analysis and assessment of the state of Portuguese Heritage assets

Patrimonio e territorioThis study aims to « underlie and monitor the measures which came to be outlined for investment in projects with cultural component in the programming of the Structural Funds 2014-2020 », and respecting two basic assumptions that, directly, shape the work to develop and encompass their scope. Primlarily, it tries to give an answer to the questions contained in the specifications: a) identify the lack of intervention in Portuguese Heritage assets under public management; b) Diagnose and appraise the state of Conservation of Portuguese Heritage assets; c) Prioritize the needs for intervention, signalling and valorization; d) Evaluate the importance of the Heritage in job creation and in structuring the Portuguese tourism demand; e) Formulate recommendations of strategic and operational nature intervention on the Patrimony, to implement in the new programming cycle of Structural Funds. Secondly, it is inscribed in the research and the lines of work carried out in Portugal over the last two decades, which has been reflected on the sector of culture and heritage to contribute for monitoring of public policy in this sphere. The proposal invests, thereby, in the mobilization of research experiences and in the capitalization of the heap of knowledge produced upon the cultural sector with a view to better understand their dynamics, mutations and possibilities. To this framework of knowledge, joins the existence of a diverse experience at European level that will serve as a counterpoint and touchstone for the construction of conceptual proposals.

In this field of assumptions, matters to allude, to the instruments of HIA (Heritage Impact Assessment), which has been used in many cases of patrimony dimension, with particular relevance to the cases of classification by UNESCO. This research will seek to adapt to a national and regional reality the methodological principles of HIA, aiming to propose a referential framework of analysis that enables the constant monitoring of the processes of classification, preservation and intervention in heritage. The universe of reference for the study are the 3836[1] Public Heritage assets included in the three existing degrees of the Portuguese classification: National Monument, of Public Interest and of Municipal Interest, regulated, in terms of supervision, accompaniment and intervention by the various state organisms: the four Regional Offices – North, Centre, Alentejo and Algarve – and the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage. The analytical corpus for this study is consisted by the set of support documentation and process collected from the Regional Directions of Culture, Committees for Coordination and Regional Development, General Directorate of Cultural Heritage and private entities, including, among others: a) legislation of reference; b) application documents (forms, decisions of juries, contracts and, when applicable, supplements of contracts – CCDR); c) reports of the state of conservation and registration (DGPC and DRC); d) activity and financial reports, when applicable. To complement the additional encoded information 5 case studies and a seminar were held, for more than inform, to shape this study towards the Portuguese operational reality and the level of current good practices in use in Portugal. Due to the high number of heritage assets that constitute the universe, both the case studies and the information gathered from stakeholders, or the one resulted from the seminar will not be used individually. Similarly, no specific analysis of each case will be made, as this would not be representative for the universe of national heritage, given the disparity of types found in the universe. All information has been treated so as to constitute a global comprehensive analysis of the classified heritage in Portugal.

Not being able to treat the Heritage sector without analysing the legal framework that marks it out and allows it to be put into practice, the Basic Law of Heritage, arising from the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic and the successive changes that it has undergone over time, defines a conceptual and institutional framework for the regulation and performance of both private and public entities, to which the management, classification, safeguarding and development concern. The Title II of the same law specifies administrative procedures, rights and duties for private and public entities, as well as its scope of intervention in partnership with the state, to obtain the goals previously cited. The DL (decree-laws) n.º 114/2012 and n.º 115/2012, both from the 25th of May, extinguish the Regional Direction of Culture of Lisbon and Tejo Valley, and redefine the allocation of assets under its management to the General Direction of Cultural Heritage, redefining, also the list of patrimony assets that are under the protection of this organism, as well as the existing Regional Offices – North, Centre, Alentejo and Algarve. Arising from the execution of the decree-laws, as well as the restructuration of the organizations with interests in the area of heritage belonging to the Central State, follows a dual role of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage: if at a given level it has the same powers and obligations as the Regional Directions of Culture, on the other hand it assumes the role of regulator, or executor, depending on the ownership of the patrimony, the works of intervention in heritage, and evaluator of regional plans for priority intervention, as well as the programs and projects for the conservation, restoration and valorisation, in which has a monitoring role, as in sub-paragraphs d) and c) of the art. n.º 2 of the Decree-Law n º 115/2012. Although the analysis of the specific legislation that regulates the heritage is important per se, it is nonetheless illustrator of multiple layers of skills that organisms occupy, arising from mergers and register changes over the past few years in the organisms of guardianship, which is desirable from this point to build a stable macro structure, to become more efficient, with smaller degrees of overlap.

In International, European terms, and focusing on cases of England, the UK as a whole has its own systems for each nation, in France, Italy and Spain the legislative system resembles, in terms of organization, to the Portuguese system, where a general legislative document from foundation by the name of « code or act », provides the guiding principles by which state agencies and private organisms should govern themselves. The classification processes range from more complex cases, such as Spain and Italy, and simpler cases, such as France and England, ranging from two to three classification categories. Whilst, in terms of number of assets, are the simplest cases that reveal it progressively more and more standardization and, in a more explicitly way, the role of privates when it comes to management, qualification and heritage conservation. Occurs for the same cases a process of greater transparency, with the data related to heritage listed and classification instruments and management, available for direct consultation and, therefore, not mediated by an organism, Italy being the paradigmatic opposite case where neither the list of assets is public domain – despite being the country with the largest number of UNESCO’s ratings – neither the governing rules for the sector are explicit, presenting a constant overlapping of items and exclusions dependent on technical deliberations of bodies of guardianship or the respective ministries.

In terms of general characterization of the existing Heritage listed – 3836 heritage property, in the continental Portuguese territory – focuses on the percentage of 61% in the North and Lisbon and Tejo Valley, with an impressive range of regional variation, counting North, the highest number, with 1324 assets (35%), and the Algarve, the less representative, with only 149 assets (4%), making a variation of almost 900%. On the set of ratings on a national scale, « National Monument » and « Public Interest », represent about 87% and 76% of those classified as « Public Interest », leaving 13% for the assets classified as « Municipal Interest ». To these must be added 13 monuments or sites (the Alto Douro wine region, Cultural Landscape of Sintra, Border City and Garrison of Elvas and its Fortifications, Historic Centres of Porto, Guimarães and Évora, Coimbra University, Alta and Sofia) with the UNESCO classification has World Heritage Site. This distribution of ratings occurs on Portuguese territory on a semi stable way, with the Centre and Algarve regions registering parities of 84% -16% and Lisbon and Tejo Valley assuming values of 82% -18%, existing a bias in favour of assets classified as national category in the northern regions (93% -7%) and Alentejo (92% – 8%).

Being the classification process an administrative act that empowers certain asset of inestimable cultural value, and being this process the result of an analysis of specific amounts of the characteristics of the heritage properties, it should be noted that 55% of listed heritage is representative of the « modern era », with the « Medieval Islamic and Christian », « contemporary », « prehistory » and « classical antiquity » eras occupying the following positions with 16%, 12%, 8% and 5%, respectively. If the date or era of construction are decisive for the attribution of historical, aesthetic and scientific values, so too is the use, in most cases conditioned by architectural typology, with « civil architecture » to assume greater importance with 44% of expression, followed by « religious architecture » with 32% and with the typologies « archaeology », « military », « industrial » and « mixed » occupying the remaining seats, with 13%, 7%, 1% and 1% of expression, respectively.

Regards to the monuments directly affected to central government organisms, these are distributed, as mentioned above, by the four Regional Offices of Culture and the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage[2] .The General Directorate of Cultural Heritage tutors 41 heritage assets, of which 1 of them does not have national classification and 2 are transferred to other entities, and therefore not affect, and corresponding to the classification of World Heritage of UNESCO, of which 22 recorded conditional entries. Of the 40 monuments classified as national scale, 28 are classified as « National Monument » and 12 as « Public Interest ». The number of visitors to the monuments with entry control reaches to, approximately, 2,920 million people, with the monuments located in Lisbon and Tejo Valley accounting for 2.286 million of entries. To these entries corresponds a revenue – including ticketing, gift shop income and space rental – close to 8 million euros, being the Jerónimos Monastery and Belém Tower together responsible for 47% of this value. In terms of net income[3] the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage presents, to the monuments with a conditional entry, a positive income in the order of 1.1 million euros, of which the quoted records set a value of 3.3 million euros of positive income. The values, substantially higher than all other directions, find a bias for classification with 4 monuments of UNESCO affected to this direction, all with surplus, balancing the insignificant or negative results of the other affected monuments. Regarding the Algarve reality, the Regional Direction of Culture of the Algarve is responsible for 8 monuments, of which only 5 are under the exclusive management of the organism, with the other 3 having a shared management with the local authority where they are situated. Of the 8 monuments 6 are classified as « National Monument » and 2 as « Public Interest ». The entries recorded to these monuments reach the value of 280 thousand persons, corresponding to a recipe – which includes other incomes such as stores and rental from spaces – of around 620 000 euros, being the Fortress of Sagres responsible for 93% of this value. The monuments provide, a net income of, approximately, negative 50 thousand euros, and the Fortress de Sagres is the only monument with a positive income, around 15 thousand euros. In the Centre region it states that the Regional Direction of Cultural of the Centre is in charge of 33 heritage assets, which 2 of them have no classification nationwide, and only 8 register conditioned entries. From the 31 buildings affected with the national order classification, 22 of them are registered as « National Monument » and 9 as « Public Interest ». In buildings with conditioned entrance, there were 130,000 visitors, representing total revenue of 190 000 euros, rummaging the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha as the most significant, with about 45% of this value. In terms of net income it is impossible for us to present any results for the 8 assets here quoted, since the charges of 7 of them were supported by the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage. To the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha the net income will be negative in approximately 137 000 euros. Regard to the Alentejo region, the Regional Direction of Culture of Alentejo has 41 heritage assets under its responsibility, 31 of them corresponding to the classification of « National Monument » and 7 to « Public Interest ». In the 16 monuments with controlled entry there were 60 000 visitors to the base year, corresponding to a revenue value of around 72 000 euros, with the Museum of Évora being responsible for 40% of this value. The net income in the case of this region is more difficult to assess, since only 7 of the 16 monuments with conditioned entry present values of costs, being incomplete, it is possible to infer a negative net income of around 32 000 euros per monument. The northern region that has the largest number of public heritage assets, 61, being 1 of them not listed, 40 classified as « National Monument » and 20 has « Public Interest ». In the 27 monuments with controlled entry, including 6 museums, the number of entries for 2012 was 1.5 million, with Paço dos Duques de Bragança being responsible for 1/3 of that number. This number of entries was reflected in a total revenue of, approximately, 1 million and 190 thousand euros, with a contribution of the museums near to 1 million, being Paço dos Duques de Bragança responsible for 88% of this value, and showing a net income, together with Museu Alberto Sampaio, of 300 000 euros. In spite of this value, the net income for the region, on average, and disregarding the museums, is, approximately, 31 000 euros negative per ward’s monument..

From the perspective of human resources employed in the heritage sector these are characterized by a specialization in technical areas related to the heritage tout court, lacking the professionals referents sector to other areas, such as management and communication, which leads to a multifaceted employment with skilled resources, since these, either by position or by practical knowledge, have to overcome the technical functions missing. On a medium and long term dimension, the heritage sector may struggle with the phenomenon of emptying the specific knowledge of each heritage asset, due to the hiring freeze in the public sector that makes it more difficult to pass along tacit knowledge. At the private level, and excluding individual cases, the economic size of holding an heritage asset does not allow to establish a well balanced team of human resources containing all the necessary areas to its fully profitability at medium-term, to which the choice between hiring resources with specific patrimonial knowledge and resources with knowledge of management and communication jeopardizes the average duration of the projects, thus, increasing the widespread perception that the heritage cannot have a private operating and that the private have no interest in doing so.

Regarding the dimension of the analysis of the state of heritage conservation in Portugal, there is a lack of systemic and structured data, tool enshrined in the legislation – Regional Plans of Priority Intervention (RPPI) – without which it becomes difficult to go beyond the sensory dimension about the same. However, not forgetting the programmatic interventions undertaken by the Estado Novo (dictatorial regime) and later, the arising of a new impetus given by the functions of the regime that succeeded it, the situation concerning the state of conservation of listed properties, although far from ideal, notes some significant changes. The allocation of EU funds for restoration works on monuments – even under the framework « tourism and culture » and although they hold a minority or, have been determined without any heritage policy framework consistently – allowed the opening of a new horizon and a more responsible, participatory and effective posture. Although it seems that the condition, in general form and according to the testimonies collected from players in the sector, it is admittedly fragile and the heritage affected to the State is relatively better, it becomes extremely onerous, if not impossible, wanting to generalize or particularize. At this level, we must offer expedited evaluation methodologies, such as the Evaluation Method of the State of Conservation, presented under the New Legal Regime of Urban Lease Law n.º 31/2012, of August 14th, method that could be introduced, albeit in processed form, in the analysis of the state of conservation of heritage, as well as the methodologies of the HIA. In an attempt to operationalize these methods, and including other contributions, we propose a frame of a methodology of evaluation and monitoring that could serve as a working basis for future field implementation of a new model which informs the RPPI’s and is able to provide an updated and reliable source of data. After analysing the only complete existing RPPI, of the Algarve, we note that from 67 assets that are registered, 46 are in need of intervention, of greater or less depth, 33 of which are public, with a budget of intervention of around 17 million euros. It is not for us, here, to extrapolate from these data a projection for the 3836 heritage assets listed of classified monuments, presenting the Algarve example only as an illustrator pointing scenario of what might be the national reality.

From an economic standpoint the Heritage is an absolute competitive advantage, for its difficulty to be replicated in another region with the same attributes, and as such is an important ally in regional development strategies, and its effect may be felt in multiple sectors, from tourism to contemporary creation, passing through Architecture and Cinema. We wonder if, without the rich heritage bequeathed by our ancestors and policies of conservation, would be possible for a country the size of Portugal to have two Pritzker awards, namely, aren’t the Portuguese architectural styles in some way dependent on the heritage that Portugal holds? In terms of measuring the economic dimension of heritage a calculation for the 3836 monuments is impossible for us to provide, due to the lack of data for all elements, or for a representative set of these that could allow an estimate that is not empty. Internationally, the value generated by the heritage sector lies in a duplicity that only between 10% and 30% of this value is directly related, worn or produced in the sector itself, the rest staying, between 90% and 70% of the value, in the adjacent or related sectors. For Portugal, we estimate that this value is situated on an equitable division, 50% – 50%, through the various state sectors of maturity, both from heritage as well from the sectors which are normally included in these categories of value appropriation. As an example, see the poor utilization of heritage assets to create products (tourist or not) and, almost, the absence of exploitation of the benefits that this can bring to corporate images. This division, in which a high percentage is not suitable for heritage, makes clear the need for State intervention, since the social optimum, which is always greater than these values generated, will only be achieved with adequate investment and, the private, for not being able to take ownership of most of the generated income, have a lower incentive to achieve this level of investment. To this factor joins the dimension of public heritage, non-exclusive and non-rival, and its inter-generational feature, which recommends its revenues and costs to be shared over time, something that a private body doesn’t have the possibility of doing. In terms of estimated value we can say that the state monuments, which provide elements of financial flow, may have an annual economic impact in a range between 18 and 108 million euros, and that the Internal Return Rate of a structured investment in a heritage asset with national public importance lies between the values of 10 and 16% for the appropriated income and between 15.5 and 26.9% for the overall value generated.

From the social point of view, the role of interposition between the present and the past, between history and heritage, it is undeniable, establishing itself as an important asset in forming a Portuguese identity and the construction of the European project that cannot, and should not, be straying from the specificities of the people who constitute it. On top of this, the training potential, of transmission of knowledge and culture, in short citizenship training, emanating from the legacy that constitutes the heritage assets.

As conclusion allow us to strengthen the urgent need for a reliable, systematic and systematized production of data in all of the dimensions addressed, as well as to improve the mechanisms of internal and external communication, which will value the central dimension of the heritage guaranteed authenticity and thus ensures a differentiator and active central factor in economic growth , in the context of a peer strategy as the European reality shows us nowadays.

[1] Date of consult of the database of the Directorate General of Cultural Heritage: 23/12/2013

[2] All data presented comprises the year 2012, except when a different year is refereed, and are approximate figures, many of them derived from financial calculation assumptions.

[3] Here, Net Income is equivalent to the Operating Income, by similarity of values and specificities of affected monuments.

Filed under: Expériences, Outils, Politiques culturelles, Ressources

Património e Território

Patrimonio e territorio

The present study is to comprise an analysis and assessment of the state of Portuguese Heritage assets, from national level in Portugal, based on inventories and data produced by the entities that oversee them. The study is commissioned by the Office of Strategy, Planning and Cultural Evaluation (GEPAC), with the higher coordination of the Office of the Secretary of State for Culture – under the ERDF Operational Programme of Technical Assistance – priority axis « Strategic Coordination and Monitoring of the NSRF « – Heritage and Territory.

This study aims to « underlie and monitor the measures which came to be outlined for investment in projects with cultural component in the programming of the Structural Funds 2014-2020 », and respecting two basic assumptions that, directly, shape the work to develop and encompass their scope. Primlarily, it tries to give an answer to the questions contained in the specifications: a) identify the lack of intervention in Portuguese Heritage assets under public management; b) Diagnose and appraise the state of Conservation of Portuguese Heritage assets; c) Prioritize the needs for intervention, signalling and valorization; d) Evaluate the importance of the Heritage in job creation and in structuring the Portuguese tourism demand; e) Formulate recommendations of strategic and operational nature intervention on the Patrimony, to implement in the new programming cycle of Structural Funds. Secondly, it is inscribed in the research and the lines of work carried out in Portugal over the last two decades, which has been reflected on the sector of culture and heritage to contribute for monitoring of public policy in this sphere. The proposal invests, thereby, in the mobilization of research experiences and in the capitalization of the heap of knowledge produced upon the cultural sector with a view to better understand their dynamics, mutations and possibilities. To this framework of knowledge, joins the existence of a diverse experience at European level that will serve as a counterpoint and touchstone for the construction of conceptual proposals.

Thanks to our member Ricardo Moreira*, the abstract of this study will be published on cultural-engineering.com very shortly. 

*Ricardo Moreira is an economist, with an innovation masters and doing a PhD crossing arts and business, that from an early stage in his career has focus his work in the cultural sector. He has done consultant work for small to big cultural entities, from art associations to national museums, creative industries companies and cultural heritage institutions and has done master classes in the major Portuguese universities regarding arts and business. Simultaneous he has taking part in research projects in the same field studying the impact of management in the cultural sector and the impact of art mind cognition in business. At a national level Ricardo Moreira has coordinate three national studies, two for the national government and one for the Portuguese dance network, in the fields of contemporary art and cultural heritage.

Filed under: Expériences, Gouvernances, Outils, Politiques culturelles, Ressources

Culture and Museums in the Winds of Change: The Need for Cultural Indicators

A recent and fascinating conversation with our member Douglas Worts* reminded me how important his contribution is to the world of museums. So I wanted to share with our members and our readers some of his contributions, starting with this exciting article where the road to a different sustainability for museums is clearly shown.

Culture and Museums in the Winds of Change: The Need for Cultural Indicators

Abstract: How individuals live their lives, within the context of personal and collective values, expresses their living culture. Societies may be made up of people with different ethnocultural backgrounds, socio-economic profiles or spiritual orientations, but they share certain common cultural frameworks (e.g., democratic governance, rules of law, conventions of business, principles of equity for all, etc.) of what is increasingly a globalized, pluralized, and urbanized present. Culture is often thought of as either the historical traditions of a group, or else as certain types of activities (e.g., dance, theatre, celebrations, rituals, etc.) and objects (e.g., art, artifacts, clothing, etc.). Meanwhile, cultural organizations are characterized as specialized places of expertise that provide selected kinds of experiences and services to the public – normally available for consumption during leisure time. This article argues that the heart of living culture is to be found not in specialized types of objects, leisure-time experiences, ethnocultural traditions, or cultural organizations but, rather, in its processes of human adaptation in a changing world. The author uses the lens of culture to examine how humanity understands and attempts to manage change within its sphere of influence. How can we best measure the cultural well-being of our societies, our organizations, and ourselves? The overarching notion of global/local sustainability provides the grounding point for considering how best to foster a ̳culture of sustainability‘.

Keywords: Museums, cultural well-being, culture and sustainability, adaptive renewal, cultural indicators

You can read and download the full article here.

Douglas Worts

*Douglas Worts (pronounced Werts) is a culture & sustainability specialist, with WorldViews Consulting, a Canadian consulting firm, and an Associate of The AtKisson Group, which is a global network of sustainability planners, educators and consultants.

He holds a specialist degree in History of Art (University of Toronto) and a Masters Degree in Museum Studies (University of Toronto).

For over 30 years, he has worked in and around museums (Art Gallery of Ontario – 25 years) – specializing in experimental exhibit design, education programming, community engagement and audience research, where he explored the potential of artworks and heritage materials to stimulate viewer creativity and ‘meaning-making’. He has spoken and published widely, including activities in North America, Europe, South America, Australia and New Zealand on a range of museum, culture and sustainability-based topics. In 1997, Douglas was invited to join Leadership for Environment and Development (LEAD International), which is a global, cross-disciplinary network of over 2500 professionals from more than 80 countries, who have been trained in and promote local/global sustainability. Douglas’ particular focus these days revolves around the belief that, regardless of technological innovation, new economic policy and governance frameworks, human beings will only achieve a sustainable future if there are foundational shifts at the cultural level. This is no mean feat given the impacts of globalization, pluralization and urbanization on all cultures. However, there is great potential for artists and organizations within the cultural sector to stretch beyond the leisure-time economy and become significant players in stimulating deep reflection, dialogue and action related to fostering a ‘culture of sustainability’ across all sectors of our society. Critical to achieving this will be the development and use of cultural ‘measures of success’ that provide meaningful and effective feedback loops to ensure the work of artists and arts organizations are directed at individual and societal leverage points that produce greater public awareness and engagement.

Douglas lives in downtown Toronto.

Personal Website: http://douglasworts.org

Business website: http://worldviewsconsulting.org

Filed under: Analyses, Expériences, Gouvernances, Ingénieries, Politiques culturelles, Ressources, , ,

Discover the 8 nominees of the Prix Elysée

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411 photographers from 42 countries took part in the inaugural edition of the Prix Elysée. The Musée de l’Elysée curators were impressed by the very high quality of submissions and took great pleasure in discovering over 8’000 images.

Here are the 8 nominees :

Anoush Abrar
Switzerland, Suisse (1976)
Mari Bastashevski
Denmark, Danemark (1980)
Philippe ChancelFrance (1959)
Annabel ElgarUnited Kingdom, Royaume-Uni (1971)
Agnès GeoffrayFrance (1973)
Martin KollarSlovakia, Slovaquie (1971)
Marco PoloniItaly and Switzerland, Italie et Suisse (1962)
Kourtney RoyCanada (1981)

Learn more about the nominees and discover their proposed projects here.

The 8 nominees now receive a contribution of 5’000 CHF towards the initial presentation of their project in the nominees’ book, published in January 2015. This book will accompany the nominees’ complete portfolios in the final consideration before the jury of experts. The winner will receive 80’000 CHF to be divided between the completion of the proposed project and the publication of the accompanying book within one year. A curator from the Musée de l’Elysée will advise the winner throughout this process. Both the project and book will be presented at the Nuit des images 2016. The nominees’ and the winner’s books will be printed by one of the Sandoz Family Foundation printing companies.

January 2015 
Presentation of the Prix Elysée nominees’ book at the Musée de l’Elysée and the Salon International de la Haute Horlogerie in Geneva in collaboration with Parmigiani Fleurier.

Late June 2015 

Announcement of the Prix Elysée winner at the Nuit des images

Late June 2016

Presentation of the awarded project and publication at the Nuit des images

→ www.prixelysee.ch

Filed under: Evénements, Expériences,

A peer funding model for the arts?

A recent paper by five mathematical computer scientists at Indiana University (published in EMBO Reports, a forum for short papers in molecular biology) proposes a clever new model for science funding that makes use of collective allocation (peer-funding) rather than expert-panel-and-peer-review funding mechanisms. I want to consider whether this might also work for arts and cultural funding.

Public science and research funding in Australia, as in most of the world, is based on a process that has remained largely unchanged for 60 years. This begins with calls for submissions of reasonably detailed project proposals. These then pass through expert panels (e.g. the Australian Research Council) and then on to the peer review process in which carefully selected “peers” evaluate the proposals and write detailed reports, before passing these back to the panels for final judgement. The high-level of process and accountability makes this the gold standard for taxpayer-sourced public funding of research (philanthropic trust funding often mirrors this architecture).

But it is expensive to run, and onerous to all involved. Perhaps one in ten projects proposed will be funded. The amounts of time and effort invested by all those seeking funding will tend toward the expected value of the grants, meaning that once overhead costs to panels and reviewers are added in, these function to a considerable degree as a redistribution mechanism. Rob Brooks wrote about this on The Conversation last year.

The new model the computer scientists propose bypasses this expert-panel-and-peer-review system altogether by simply taking the whole public lump of funding, and allocating it unconditionally (yes, unconditionally) to all “eligible” scientific researchers. It would thus function like a kind of “basic income”.

They calculate that if the National Science Foundation budget in the US were divided among all who applied for funding, it would deliver about US$100,000 per scientist. The problem with this, apart from an expected blowout in the number of people who claim to be scientists, is that we’ve just lost oversight, accountability and peer review.

So here’s what the computer scientists propose: everyone who receives funding gives some fraction (say 50% of their previous year’s funding) to other scientists whose work they like or think particularly interesting and valuable. That fraction can be distributed among one or many. The idea is that this works as a collective-allocation mechanism that basically crowd-sources peer review, and with the added advantage that it funds people, not projects. It also gets the incentives right for scientists to concentrate on clear communication of their findings and the value of research.

This method replicates the good parts of the previous model: those with higher peer regard will receive more funding; and those same people will have a larger say in the overall allocation (the pledge is a fixed fraction of the previous year’s funding). There would, obviously, still need to be confidentiality and conflict-of-interest avoiding mechanisms, along with careful monitoring to ensure that circular funding schemes are identified and punished.

But it also avoids the bad parts: in providing a guaranteed basic income, it liberates researchers from continual wasteful cycles of grant-writing by furnishing autonomy and stability of funding; it avoids the overheads associated with process and review; it enables a continual updating of funding to reflect the preferences and priorities of the scientific community, without getting caught in legacy priorities or political cycles.

Now might this also work for public funding of arts and culture? The main reason to think it might is that the same inefficiency arguments apply in arts and culture as they do in science: namely that those seeking grants spend considerable time and effort writing and preparing grants; face high uncertainty about funding outcomes; proposals tend toward conservative trend-following of agency preferences; projects, not people, are funded; and all the while arts funding bodies and panels (and the peer review process) consume sizable overhead.

On the flip-side, it’s not as neatly obvious who would be eligible. Research scientists can be reliably identified by the high-hurdle of having PhDs, prior publications, and full-time appointments at accredited institutes. But let’s suppose we can come up with an acceptable solution to that long-list problem. (I’m not suggesting this is trivial; just that that’s not what I want to focus on here.)

I think that this would, potentially, be a substantial step towards a more open and effective funding model (peer driven, not bureaucratically or politically driven). It would enable creative resources to be more directly spent on artistic production and public communication, with less time and effort wasted on endless rounds of grant-writing and reviewing.

And while still some distance from a decentralised and fully-incentivised market ideal of “consumers voting with their own dollars”, it is at least closer to that model in reflecting the preferences and judgements of the actual community of practising producers of culture (which is not always identical to appointed “expert” panels). Like the Oscars, in a way.

Might collective allocation of arts and cultural funding be superior to expert-panel based solutions? What do we think: crazy or not?

Jason Potts, Professor of Economics at RMIT University.

Source : The conversation

Filed under: Analyses, Expériences, Financement de projet, Gouvernances, Ingénieries, Politiques culturelles, , , , ,

La fabrique artistique des imaginaires de la métropole parisienne

Le 8ème cycle de rencontres-débats art [espace] public sera consacré à La fabrique artistique des imaginaires de la métropole parisienne, chaque fin de semaine, de 19h à 21h, du 7 février au 14 mars, dans divers lieux de l’Île-de-France. 


Frayant entre partisans et adversaires, la métropole parisienne se construit pas à pas et pourrait voir le jour dès 2016. Alors que le contexte électoral soulève de nombreuses questions quant au devenir de Paris et la première couronne, le 8e cycle art [espace] public souhaite interroger la façon dont la création en espace public aborde et met en débat les enjeux métropolitains. En prolongement des questions initiées lors de l’édition 2013, il consacre sept rencontres à la fabrique artistique des imaginaires du Grand Paris. Ces conférences débats seront l’occasion d’explorer la relation ténue entre interventions artistiques et culturelles et territoire métropolitain. Cette relation, en tissant à travers l’espace du Grand Paris une vaste toile de projets artistiques, permet de multiplier et de décentrer le regard, d’interroger les enjeux d’un territoire en mutation pour en libérer l’imaginaire et pour révéler la valeur symbolique et poétique des lieux.
Organisées par les étudiants du Master Projets culturels dans l’espace public de l’université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne et l’association Objet(s) Public(s), sous la direction de Stéphanie Lemoine et Pascal Le Brun-Cordier, ces rencontres sont ouvertes à tous. Elles se nouent autour d’immersions dans les différents projets artistiques partenaires du Master et de temps de convivialité.
Au programme : Quelle place pour la création artistique dans la construction métropolitaine ? le 7 février, au Pavillon de l’Arsenal, Paris ; Les flux métropolitains au coeur de nouvelles pratiques artistiques, le 15 février, aux Eurosites – Docks de Paris, La Plaine Saint-Denis, ; Le Grand Paris nous appartient ? le 16 février, au Théâtre de l’Échangeur, Bagnolet ; La culture, 4ème pilier de la ville durable ? le 21 février 2014 au 6B, Saint Denis ; Identités en chantier et action artistique, le 28 février, au Théâtre El Duende, Ivry-sur-Seine ; La fabrique de la ville à l’épreuve des projets partagés, le 7 mars, au Théâtre des Frères Poussière, Aubervilliers ; Et si la métropole était un rêve collectif ? le 14 mars, à la Ferme du Bonheur, Nanterre.
Un programme détaillé est téléchargeable.

Filed under: Evénements, Expériences, Gouvernances, Politiques culturelles, , , , ,

Lottery cash spares English arts groups from big cuts

Alan Davey, chief executive of Arts Council England. Photograph: Eamonn McCabe for the Guardian

Alan Davey, chief executive of Arts Council England. Photograph: Eamonn McCabe for the Guardian

Public money available to England’s arts organisations in 2015 will fall by 2.24% – far less than expected because it includes a substantial increase in lottery cash that will, for the first time, be used as regular funding.

The application process to be part of Arts Council England‘s national portfolio in 2015-18 opened at noon on Tuesday.

Organisations from big opera houses to small theatres now have 10 weeks to apply for the money from a £334m pot that will be available in 2015.

The organisation’s chief executive, Alan Davey, said they recognised « that these remain austere times. » He added: « We must continue to invest in a way that ensures a healthy cultural ecology all over the country.

« We must keep the sector resilient and ensure art and culture retain their central place in this country’s way of life, and continue to enhance the quality of life for all. »

ACE is managing to avoid dramatic reductions because of a big increase in lottery money which had previously been diverted from the arts to the Olympics.

It will now go directly to fund arts organisations, a move that represents a big change of approach.

For example in 2014/15, £327.5m grant in aid went to arts organisations and £28.3m lottery money went to touring and children and young people projects.

In 2015/16 there will be a total budget of £334m – that includes a dramatically reduced £271m of grant in aid and £62.5m lottery money.

ACE acknowledges that some arts organisations will be funded totally by the lottery and some by grant in aid.

The question is whether that breaches the « additionality principle » established in 1992 which says lottery money has to be for things which would not happen without the additional support. ACE says it does not believe the principle is breached.

Davey said there had been an ongoing debate as to what the principle is and how to test it.

« We have listened to the current debate and we are confident that the approach we’re taking does not breach the additionality principle.

« The biggest proportion of our portfolio funding will still come from grant in aid. In using lottery funds to support additional activity, we believe we adhere to the principle that government funding should be maintained and is an essential part of a mixed funding model. »

In opening the application process, arts organisations were warned that funding can only be confirmed for 2015/16 with the following two years dependent on the settlement reached with government.

Source : The Guardian

Filed under: Analyses, Expériences, Financement de projet, Gouvernances, Politiques culturelles, , ,

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